Anti-HLA antibodies

ichorbio supplies a range of HLA antibodies including antibodies targeting DR, DQ and DP isotypes. We have low endotoxin and conjugated versions available for each.

HLA-DR

HLA-DR is an isotype of MHC class II together with HLA-DP, HLA-DM, HLA-DO and HLA-DQ

HLA-DR is encoded on chromosome 6 in the region 6p21; the DR isotype is located specifically at 6p21.31. HLA-DR is made up of two subunits: alpha (α) and beta (β).

MHC Class II

MHC Class II proteins are up-regulated in response to signalling as part of the immune response. They form a complex with foreign peptides generally 9 to 30 amino acids in length on the outside of cells which together act as a ligand for the T-cell receptor (TCR) which causes the multiplication of T-helper cells (also called CD4 positive T cells).  These cells in turn stimulate antibody-producing B-cells to produce antibodies to the specific foreign peptide that was presented.

Please see image 1 below for a schematic:

HLA-DR antibodies: Conjugated

ichorbio supplies a range of conjugated antibodies to HLA-DR.

Subunit nameGeneChromosomal locus
αHLA-DRAChromosome 6p21.31
β1HLA-DRB1Chromosome 6p21.31
β3HLA-DRB3Chromosome 6p21.31
β4HLA-DRB4Chromosome 6p21.31
β5HLA-DRB5Chromosome 6p21.31

HLA-DR in Disease

Antigens most responsible for graft loss are HLA-DR (first six months), HLA-B (first two years), and HLA-A (long-term survival). Good matching of these antigens between host and donor is most critical for achieving graft survival.

HLA-DR is also involved in several autoimmune conditions, disease susceptibility and disease resistance. It is also closely linked to HLA-DQ and this linkage often makes it difficult to resolve the more causative factor in disease.

HLA DR alleles that are associated with autoimmune diseases:

HLA AlleleDisease Relative Risk
HLA-DR2Systemic lupus erythematosus2-3
HLA-DR3Autoimmune hepatitis14
Primary Sjögren syndrome10
Diabetes mellitus type 15
Systemic lupus erythematosus2-3
HLA-DR4Rheumatoid arthritis4
Diabetes mellitus type 16
HLA-DR3 and -DR4 combinedDiabetes mellitus type 115

Anti-HLA-DQ antibodies

ichorbio supplies a range of HLA-DQ antibodies including low endotoxin versions for in vivo research and conjugated HLA-DQ antibodies for flow cytometry, western blotting and related applications.

HLA-DQ antibodies: Low Endotoxin

HLA-DQ antibodies: Conjugated

ichorbio supplies a range of conjugated antibodies to HLA-DQ.

HLA-DQ

HLA-DQ is an isotype of MHC class II together with HLA-DP, HLA-DM, HLA-DO and HLA-DR

HLA-DQ is encoded on chromosome 6 in the region 6p21; the DQ isotype is located specifically at 6p21.31. HLA-DQ is made up of two subunits: alpha (α) and beta (β).

The currently used serotypes are HLA-DQ2, -DQ3, -DQ4, -DQ5, -DQ6, -DQ7, -DQ8, -DQ9.

MHC Class II

MHC Class II proteins are up-regulated in response to signalling as part of the immune response. They form a complex with foreign peptides generally 9 to 30 amino acids in length on the outside of cells which together act as a ligand for the T-cell receptor (TCR) which causes the multiplication of T-helper cells (also called CD4 positive T cells).  These cells in turn stimulate antibody-producing B-cells to produce antibodies to the specific foreign peptide that was presented.

Please see image 1 below for a schematic:

HLA-DQ

DQ is also involved in recognizing common self-antigens and presenting those antigens to the immune system in order to develop tolerance from a very young age. When tolerance to self proteins is lost, DQ may become involved in autoimmune disease.

HLA-DQ in Disease

Two autoimmune diseases in which HLA-DQ is involved are coeliac disease and diabetes mellitus type 1.

DQ is one of several antigens involved in rejection of organ transplants. As a variable cell surface receptor on immune cells, these D antigens, originally HL-A4 antigens, are involved in graft-versus-host disease when lymphoid tissues are transplanted between people.